Simply stated, our awareness that certain actions are morally wrong can be referred to as:
C. internal moral authority.
D. moral predisposition.
Moral relativism is the idea that:
A. everything we do is motivated by self-interest.
B. every event has a cause.
C. morality is absolute because it is based in human nature.
D. morality varies from culture to culture and time period to time period.
Which of the following might help us develop open-mindedness and the virtue of tolerance?
A. Recognizing that people have free will
B. Recognizing that moral norms can and often do vary by time and place
C. Developing our own sense of egoism
D. All of the above
Which of the following positions holds that moral beliefs vary from person to person, and that one person’s beliefs and practices cannot be said to be more right (or wrong) that any other person’s?
C. The principle of understanding
When we claim that certain moral values or principles (e.g., do not steal) apply or should apply to all people, everywhere, we are saying that some values or principles are:
With respect to religion and morality, the problem of common ground refers to the fact that religious commands and principles:
A. are too old to be valuable today.
B. are of unknown origin.
C. only appeal to believers.
D. are often immoral themselves.
Which of the following, derived from John Stuart Mill, suggests that governments can legitimately create and impose laws only where it is necessary to prevent people from harming others?
A. The harm principle
C. The principle of victimless crime
D. The no-cause principle
Which of the following explanations of morality argues that actions are right/wrong, good/bad because they are approved or disapproved of by God (or some other higher power)?
A. Strong reciprocity
B. Social contract
C. Divine command
D. Law-and-order morality
Which of the following refers to the anxiety or discomfort we experience when we deviate from our own internal standards of right and wrong?
A. Moral inferiority
B. Punitive egoism
Planned, premeditated killings of family members whose behavior is judged to have brought shame or dishonor to the family are referred to as:
A. retaliatory familicide.
B. blood feuds.
C. mala in se.
D. honor killings.
The Comstock Act:
A. defined contraceptives as obscene and regulated their distribution.
B. defined blood feuds as hate crimes.
C. legalized prostitution in certain counties in Nevada.
D. mandated the civil commitment of dangerous offenders.
Direct misconduct by a police officer, such as extorting money from drug dealers, would be an example of which of the following forms of misconduct?
D. All of the above
When we are committed unquestioningly and with absolute certainty to a belief or beliefs, we are guilty of:
A. psychological egoism.
B. normative relativism.
C. an imbalanced soul.
A law enforcement officer accepting money or other favors for overlooking traffic violations would be classified as which of the following forms of corruption?
D. Opportunistic theft
Advocates of which of the following often appeal to the harm principle to support their position?
A. Death penalty
B. Decriminalization of victimless crimes
C. Mandatory minimum sentencing
D. Three-strikes laws
Accepting gifts from inmates for special considerations (e.g., choice cells or job assignments) is a form of prison corruption categorized as:
B. misuse of authority.
Which of the following positions holds that there are eternal, unchanging moral laws that apply to all people, everywhere?
A. Ethical universalism
B. Cultural relativism
C. Descriptive relativism
D. The principle of “standing up against evil”