Multiple Choice


Question 1
Simply stated, our awareness that certain actions are morally wrong can be referred to as:
A. conscience.
B. guilt.
C. internal moral authority.
D. moral predisposition.

Question 2
Moral relativism is the idea that:
A. everything we do is motivated by self-interest.
B. every event has a cause.
C. morality is absolute because it is based in human nature.
D. morality varies from culture to culture and time period to time period.

Question 3
Which of the following might help us develop open-mindedness and the virtue of tolerance?
A. Recognizing that people have free will
B. Recognizing that moral norms can and often do vary by time and place
C. Developing our own sense of egoism
D. All of the above

Question 4
Which of the following positions holds that moral beliefs vary from person to person, and that one person’s beliefs and practices cannot be said to be more right (or wrong) that any other person’s?
A. Relativism
B. Pluralism
C. The principle of understanding
D. Individualism

Question 5
When we claim that certain moral values or principles (e.g., do not steal) apply or should apply to all people, everywhere, we are saying that some values or principles are:
A. descriptive.
B. relative.
C. universal.
D. pragmatic.

Question 6
With respect to religion and morality, the problem of common ground refers to the fact that religious commands and principles:
A. are too old to be valuable today.
B. are of unknown origin.
C. only appeal to believers.
D. are often immoral themselves.

Question 7
Which of the following, derived from John Stuart Mill, suggests that governments can legitimately create and impose laws only where it is necessary to prevent people from harming others?
A. The harm principle
B. Paternalism
C. The principle of victimless crime
D. The no-cause principle

Question 8
Which of the following explanations of morality argues that actions are right/wrong, good/bad because they are approved or disapproved of by God (or some other higher power)?
A. Strong reciprocity
B. Social contract
C. Divine command
D. Law-and-order morality

Question 9
Which of the following refers to the anxiety or discomfort we experience when we deviate from our own internal standards of right and wrong?
A. Moral inferiority
B. Punitive egoism
C. Guilt
D. Hedonism

Question 10
Planned, premeditated killings of family members whose behavior is judged to have brought shame or dishonor to the family are referred to as:
A. retaliatory familicide.
B. blood feuds.
C. mala in se.
D. honor killings.

Question 11
The Comstock Act:
A. defined contraceptives as obscene and regulated their distribution.
B. defined blood feuds as hate crimes.
C. legalized prostitution in certain counties in Nevada.
D. mandated the civil commitment of dangerous offenders.

Question 12
Direct misconduct by a police officer, such as extorting money from drug dealers, would be an example of which of the following forms of misconduct?
A. Nonfeasance
B. Misfeasance
C. Malfeasance
D. All of the above

Question 13
When we are committed unquestioningly and with absolute certainty to a belief or beliefs, we are guilty of:
A. psychological egoism.
B. normative relativism.
C. an imbalanced soul.
D. dogmatism.

Question 14
A law enforcement officer accepting money or other favors for overlooking traffic violations would be classified as which of the following forms of corruption?
A. Theft
B. Fixes
C. Shakedowns
D. Opportunistic theft

Question 15
Advocates of which of the following often appeal to the harm principle to support their position?
A. Death penalty
B. Decriminalization of victimless crimes
C. Mandatory minimum sentencing
D. Three-strikes laws

Question 16
Accepting gifts from inmates for special considerations (e.g., choice cells or job assignments) is a form of prison corruption categorized as:
A. theft.
B. misuse of authority.
C. embezzlement.
D. trafficking.

Question 17
Which of the following positions holds that there are eternal, unchanging moral laws that apply to all people, everywhere?
A. Ethical universalism
B. Cultural relativism
C. Descriptive relativism
D. The principle of “standing up against evil”

Multiple Choice


1. What is wrong with the following while loop if the intention is to print out “C is fun! twice? (Hint: it is a syntax error.)
int count = 1;
while (count <= 2);
printf (“C is fun!\n”);
printf (“%i\n”, count);

2. In the following program, what additional syntax is needed to ensure that two printfstatements in the ifstructure shown will be executed when the condition is false (i.e., when grade < 60). Please make the change right in the code itself.
#include <stdio.h>
void main (void)
int grade;
printf (“Enter student grade: “);
scanf (“%i”, &grade);
if (grade >= 60)

printf (“You passed.\n”);
printf (“Good job\n”);


printf (“You failed\n”);
printf (“You need to improve”);

3. What is output from the following code segment:
for (x = 1; x <= 5; x++)
if (x != 3)
printf (“%i “, x);
} /* end for loop */
printf (“Oh my!”);

4. A group of contiguous memory locations related by the fact that they all have the same name and the same data type is knows as:
a. a variable.
b. an array.
c. a file.
d. a function.

5. What would be output based on the user input shown below, given that variable “feeling” is a declared as a char. Please place your answer where indicated in the box below (this is a program segment, not a complete program; do not say error or no output).

printf (“How do you feel (G=Good, S=Sick, T=Tired): “);
scanf (“%c”, &feeling);
switch (feeling)
case ‘S’: printf (“Take 2 aspirin.\n”);
printf (“Call me in the morning.\n”);
case ‘T’: printf (“Don’t stay up late.\n”);
printf (“Get some sleep!\n”);
case ‘G’: printf (“I’m glad for you.\n”);
default: printf (“**Invalid Feeling**”);
Program execution #1:
How do you feel (G=Good, S=Sick, T=Tired): T
(The user entered “S”)

Program execution #2:

How do you feel (G=Good, S=Sick, T=Tired): G
(The user entered “R”)

6. To declare array my_values to contain a maximum of 10 floating point numbers, the correct declaration would be:
a. float my_values[] = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
b. float my_values[10];
c. float my_values[11];
d. float my_values[9];

7. Which statement below is equivalent to the following code segment:
if ( ( num % 2) == 0 )
printf (“Even.\n”);
printf (“Odd.\n”);
a. (num % 2) = 0 ?printf (“Odd.\n”) : printf (“Even.\n”);
b. (num % 2) = 0 :printf (“Even.\n”) ? printf (“Odd.\n”);
c. (num % 2) == 0 ?printf (“Odd.\n”) : printf (“Even.\n”);
d. (num % 2) == 0 ?printf (“Even.\n”) : printf (“Odd.\n”);

8. The body of which looping structure is always executed at least 1 time?
a. the do loop
b. the while loop
c. the for loop
d. the if loop

9. What is printed after the following code segment is executed?
char array_values[30] = “QJWAMMDECS$ EBDONNEDXYZW”;
for ( i=1 ; i< 21; i = i + 2)
printf(“%c”, array_values[i]);
printf(” 007\n”);

A loop within another loop is known as:
a. a loop-dee-loop.
b. a nested loop.
c. a double loop.
d. a 2-dimensional loop.

Which C statement below causes the program to skip the remaining statements in a loop but does not cause the loop to end(if any).
a. continue;
b. stop;
c. break;
d. exit;

Which C statement below causes any statements following it in the body of the loop to be skipped, but allows the next iteration of the loop to be processed.
a. continue;
b. exit;
c. goto;
d. break;

Based on the values of condition 1 and condition 2 (T = True, F= False), fill in the remainder of the truth table below with T’s or F’s.
Condition1 Condition2 Cond. 1 && Cond. 2 Cond. 1 || Cond. 2
Fill blanks above (Answer1 – Answer8) with correct T or F values.
14. What is output from the following code segment:
for (x = 1; x <= 5; x++)
if (x != 3)
printf (“%i “, x);
} /* end for loop */
printf (“Greetings”);

15. How do we refer to the second element of the following array:
int grades[3];
a. grades[3]
b. grades[2]
c. grades[1]
d. grades[0]

16. What is output from the following code segment:
int x = 2, num;
while (x < 6)
num = x * x;
printf (“%i\n”, num);

17. What is output from the following code segment?
intnum = 1;
while (num< 3)
printf (“**”);
printf (” That’s all folks!”);

18. t is common to confuse the equality operator with the assignment operator because the assignment operator looks like and the equality operator looks like

19. What is output from the following code segment?
intnum = 3;
printf (“%i”, num);
num = num + 2;
} while (num<= 5);

20. How many elements does array grades[5] have?
a. 6
b. 4
c. 3
d. 5

21. How would the last line of the following code segment need to be modified for the average calculation below to be correct? (Note: this is not an entire program just a code segment)
float average;
int total = 100, number = 27;
average = total/number;

22. Assume the logic design below with ‘T’ representing TRUE. Which conditions must be met in order for this person to get a car.
if ( (salary > 15000) && (credit_rating>=3) )
new_car = ‘T’;
a. Person must have at least credit rating 3 and make more than 15000 to get a car.
b. Person has cash so no problem
c. Person can get a car when credit rating is 5.
d. Person can get a car when salary is 16000

23. A looping structure which allows programmers to specify that an action is to be repeated as long as some condition remains true is known as:
a. a while loop.
b. an if statement.
c. an array.
d. an if/else statement.

24. ow many values does the following scanfstatement expect the user of the program to input:
printf(“Please enter three numbers: \n”);
scanf (“%i%i%i”, &x,&y);
a. 3 values
b. 2 values
c. 0 values
d. 1 value

25. Which of the following statements initializes the entire array nums[4] to zero? (Choose all that apply, look very closely!):
a. for (i = 0, i< 4, i++) { nums[i] = 0; }
b. Int nums[ ] = {0,0,0,0};
c. intnums[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0};
d. intnums[4] = {0};

Multiple Choice


In manufacturing a product, prime costs are
direct materials and manufacturing overhead.
direct labor and manufacturing overhead.
raw materials and manufacturing overhead.
direct materials and direct labor.

Question 2
Which one of the following is NOT a cost element in manufacturing a product?
Manufacturing overhead
Direct labor
Direct materials
Office salaries

Question 3
Which of the following is NOT classified as direct labor?
Copy machine operators at a copy shop
Bakers in a bakery
Bottlers of beer in a brewery
Wages of supervisors

Question 4
In which classification would the wages of a factory payroll clerk be classified?
Period costs
Raw materials
Indirect labor
Direct labor

Question 5
What criteria must be met in order to consider the work of factory employees to be direct labor?
It must be periodically associated with counting inventory of products.
It must be physically associated with converting materials into products.
It must be promptly associated with getting material from the warehouse.
It must be materially associated with selling products.

Question 6
Prime costs of a company are $6,000,000. If manufacturing overhead is $3,000,000, what is direct labor cost?
Cannot be determined from the information provided.

Question 7
Product costs are also called
prime costs.
direct costs.
inventoriable costs.
capitalizable costs.

Question 8
How does a manufacturing company report cost of goods manufactured?
As an administrative expense on the income statement
As a component in the calculation of cost of goods sold on the income statement
As a current asset on the balance sheet
As a component of the raw materials inventory on the balance sheet

Question 9
Craft Manufacturing Company’s accounting records reflect the following inventories:
Raw materials: ending $310,000, beginning $260,000;
Work in process: ending $300,000, beginning $160,000;
Finished goods: ending $190,000, beginning $150,000.
During 2002, $500,000 of raw materials were purchased, direct labor costs amounted to $600,000, and manufacturing overhead incurred was $480,000.
The total raw materials available for use during 2002 for Craft Manufacturing Company is

Question 10
Craft Manufacturing Company’s accounting records reflect the following inventories:
Raw materials: ending $310,000, beginning $260,000;
Work in process: ending $300,000, beginning $160,000;
Finished goods: ending $190,000, beginning $150,000.
During 2002, $500,000 of raw materials were purchased, direct labor costs amounted to $600,000, and manufacturing overhead incurred was $480,000.
Craft Manufacturing Company’s total manufacturing costs incurred in 2002 amounted to

Answer of the following Questions


What was Mill’s crisis? How did it affect his subsequent philosophizing?

How does Mill account for the predominance of lower pleasure? Do you agree? Why?

Explain what is meant by human wisdom. Be sure to consider in your response if the concept of what wisdom is has changed over the ages. Give examples of wisdom you have heard of or seen in your life experiences.

Make a convincing case that advertisers are sophists. Are they? Give an example of nonsophistic and sophistic advertising. Use examples from print and other media.

Briefly compare the similarities between the philosophers you studied this lesson. Write a recommendation to one of you classmates about which philosopher they should study.

Take a moment to reflect on what you have learned in this course so far. Answer one of these two questions:

-What philosopher or philosophy studied so far in this book has caused a fundamental change in your thinking/personal philosophy and why? Make sure you write enough to support your statement, i.e.comparing your philosophy to the “correct” philosopher, giving examples, etc. Minimum 100 words.

Respond thoughtfully to one of the following

What is a thought experiment? Give or design an example of a thought experiment you can use or have used in your own life. Be sure to follow your experiment through to “the end”. 100 words minimum.

Think about Mill’s argument of the qualitative differences between pleasures and describe how these to your own life experiences. 100 words minimum.

Explain Marx’s concept of alienation, species-life, alienated and unalienated labor. Give an example of these concepts in your life or events you have knowledge of from any field or source. 100 words minimum.

Pick a basic concept or development of philosophy from chapter 15, 16, or the first half of 17 of your book. Explain it to three – five friends or colleagues. Ask how they feel and what they think about the topic.

Write down the conversation and dialog that you have — especially as it relates to the concepts studied. You may use the style of one of Plato’s dialogs.

Answer the following questions (Ch 7&8)

Explain the role hedonistic thinking played in the origins of Stoicism.

How did cynicism influence stoicism? Be specific.

Cynics, however, was the idea that it was possible to actually practice a Cynic lifestyle.

What is the relationship of Socrates to Cynicism and Stoicism?

How are logos and fate related in stoicism?

Identify and discuss possible problems with the stoic notion of fate.

Compare and contrast the classical worldview with the medieval.

What basic conditions led to the development of Christian philosophy? Where did the need for interpretation come from?

In your own words describe the chief characteristics of Scholastic scholarship.

In what ways is the medieval scholar the forerunner of the modern professor?

Which of the Five Ways do you think is the weakest? Explain Why.

Answer the following questions

What was Descartes’s proposal, and how did his scholastic education influence it?

How is skepticism important to Cartesian philosophy?

What is the evil genius, and what is its significance to the Cartesian Genesis?

Can Evil Genius refute the cogito? Is there any way to “refute” the cogito?

Outline the development of the “epistemological turn” from Descartes through Locke and Berkeley to Hume.

In your own words, reconstruct the basic empirical critique of rationalism.

What is the ‘tabula rasa’ What is its significance to Locke’s empiricism

Why is the distinction between impressions and ideas important to Hume’s philosophy?

Answer the following questions

Why did Kant think it necessary to posit the existence of the noumenal world?

How does Kant answer Hume’s bundle theory of the self? Do you think he is successful?

Describe the moral dimension as Kant understood it.

Explain the reasoning behind Kant’s efforts to make morality a matter of motives, not consequences.

What is a good will, according to Kant, and why does he claim that the only thing good in itself is a good will?

What is “the Malthusian universe”?

What role does psychological egoism play in Bentham’s simple utilitarianism?

Did Bentham include animals in the moral domain? Why or Why not?